The Duke Household Energy and Health Initiative (DHEHI) is a multi‐disciplinary initiative at Duke, focused initially on clean cooking and rural electrification. For example, in two multi-year field studies conducted in collaboration with in-country scholars and practitioners, we are working to more fully characterize the environmental impacts (e.g., firewood extraction) and short term exposure (e.g., to PM2.5) from dirty fuels. Similarly, we are testing updated theories of adoption of clean energy services, which suggest that household drivers such as income and information are modified by underlying socio‐psychological (e.g., risk preferences) and micro-institutional (e.g., NGO quality) factors in different eco-climatic regions and socio-cultural contexts.